Child Trafficking

By:

CSO Platform For Reform – Child Cluster

Affiliations:

Child Rights Coalition Malaysia (CRCM)

Policy Code:

2e Child

Problem Statement:

1. Malaysia has been downgraded to Tier 3 Watch List as the government does not fully meet
the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts
to do so.
2. Considering the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on its anti-trafficking capacity the
government continue to conflate human trafficking and migrant smuggling crimes and did
not adequately address or criminally pursue credible allegations from multiple sources
alleging labor trafficking.
3. Children including refugee children have been trafficked on all forms of labour exploitation
and child marriage. Anti-trafficking enforcements do not classify child marriages as
trafficking incidents as they consider children’s consent as valid. Refugee, migrant and other
vulnerable children are smuggled, become victims of debt bondage and are sold into
marriages, forced labour, begging and experience violence and torture.

Value(s) and Belief(s):

National laws to protect children, namely Child Act 2001, Sexual Offences Against Children Act 2017
need to be harmonized with the Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Smuggling Of Migrants Act 2007
and Penal Code in line with UN Conventions to protect all children, including all those from refugee,
migrant and stateless communities.

Proposal of Solution:

1. Establish a formal, timely and effective child centred case management procedure including
accurate identification, response mechanisms, assessment for international protection to
ensure child survivors are referred for protection and services.
2. Institutionalise awareness raising and trainings on trafficking and smuggling, anti-trafficking
laws, Child Act 2001, SOACA, interagency coordination and data sharing, child friendly
interview techniques, confidential reporting mechanisms with anti-trafficking enforcement
and border control authorities, judiciaries, prosecutors, police, medical authorities including
SCAN and OSCC, child protectors, social workers, teachers, NGOs, religious authorities,
families and children including refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants.
3. Coordinate systematic dialogues on national and international data sharing with consent
and confidentiality safeguards, legal procedures and stronger cooperation with countries of
origins, transit and destination to prevent trafficking, prosecute traffickers and protect child
survivors.
4. Stop arrest, detention and deportation of trafficked migrant and refugee children on
violating immigration laws and avail temporary residence permits, interpretation services,
redress, rehabilitation and compensation. Recommend repatriation following a best interest
determination for the trafficked child and in the case of refugees, government agencies to
coordinate with UNHCR.

Additional Information:

1. 2019 CRCM Status Report - Pg 47
2. 2020 US Trafficking in Persons Report, which was released in June 2020 (US Embassy in
Malaysia (2020)
3. In its 2018 Concluding Observations to Malaysia, the CEDAW Committee stated that it “it
remains deeply concerned that the State party remains a destination country for trafficking
of women and girls, including asylum-seeking and refugee women and girls, for purposes of
sexual exploitation, begging, forced labour, or forced marriage (UN Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (2018) Paragraph 25)
4. UN Human Rights Council. (2019, January 17). Visit to Malaysia - Report of the Special
Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child
pornography and other child sexual abuse. 7. A/HRC/40/51/Add/3. (UNHRC: New York)
5. Relevant bodies and stakeholders include immigration, judicial officers, prosecutors,
enforcement bodies, medical authorities including SCAN and OSCC staff, child protectors,
social workers, teachers, school staff, NGOs, religious authorities, refugee children, their
families and communities.

Translation

Isu dan Polisi Semasa:

Malaysia telah diturunkan (menjatuh) ke Senarai Pemerhatian Tahap 3 kerana kerajaan Malaysia tidak memenuhi tahap minimum untuk penghapusan pemerdagangan (manusia) dan tidak mengambil langkah-langkah untuk melakukannya.
Memandangkan kesan pandemik COVID-19 terhadap kapasiti anti-pemerdagangan , kerajaan tetap memperdagangkan manusia dan migran dan tidak berucap(mengambil tindakan mengenai tuduhan dari pelbagai sumber mendakwa pemerdagangan pekerja.
Kanak-kanak termasuk pelarian telah diperdagangkan melalui pelbagai jenis taktik pemerdagangan pekerja dan perkahwinan kanak-kanak. Pihak berkuasa anti-pemerdagangan tidak mengklasifikasi perkahwinan kanak-kanak sebagai pemerdagangan kerana mereka menganggap persetujuan seorang kanak-kanak sebagai sah. Pelarian, migran dan kanak- kanak terdedah lain diseludupi, menjadi mangsa perhambaan hutang dan seterusnya dijual ke dalam perkahwinan, dipaksa bekerja, menjadi mengemis dan mengalami keganasan.

Nilai-nilai dan Kepercayaan:

Undang-undang negara untuk melindungi kanak-kanak, terdiri daripada Akta Kanak-Kanak 2001, Akta Kesalahan Seksual Terhadap Kanak-Kanak 2017 perlu diselaraskan dengan Akta Anti- Pemerdagangan Orang dan Anti-Penyeludupan Migran 2007 dan Kanun Keseksaan selaras dengan Konvensyen UN untuk melindungi semua kanak-kanak, termasuk pelarian, migran dan komuniti yang tidak mempunyai kewarganegaraan.

Penyelesaian:

Menetapkan prosedur pengurusan kes berpusatkan kanak-kanak yang formal, dan berkesan termasuk identifikasi tepat, mekanisme tindak balas, penilaian untuk perlindungan antarabangsa demi memastikan mangsa yang selamat dirujuk untuk perlindungan dan perkhidmatan.
Menyeregamkan peningkatan kesedaran dan latihan mengenai perdagangan dan penyeludupan, undang-undang anti-pemerdagangan manusia, Akta Anak 2001, SOACA, koordinasi antara agensi dan perkongsian data, teknik mewawancara yang ramah untuk kanak-kanak, mekanisme pelaporan rahsia dengan pihak penguatkuasaan dan pengawalan sempadan anti pemerdagangan manusia, hakim, pendakwa raya , polis, pihak berkuasa perubatan termasuk SCAN dan OSCC, pelindung kanak-kanak, pekerja sosial, guru, NGO, pihak berkuasa agama, keluarga dan kanak-kanak termasuk pelarian, pencari suaka dan pendatang.
Menyelaras dialog sistematik mengenai perkongsian data nasional dan antarabangsa dengan persetujuan dan perlindungan kerahsiaan, prosedur undang-undang dan kerjasama yang lebih teras dengan negara asal, transit dan destinasi untuk mencegah pemerdagangan manusia, pendakwaan pemerdagangan manusia dan melindungi mangsa yang selamat.
Menghentikan penangkapan, penahanan dan pengusiran anak-anak migran dan pelarian yang diperdagangkan kerana melanggar undang-undang imigresen dan mendapat izin tinggal sementara, perkhidmatan pentafsiran, pemulihan, pemulihan dan pampasan. Mengesyorkan penghantaran pulang setelah penentuan kepentingan terbaik untuk kanak-kanak yang diperdagangkan dan dalam hal pelarian, agensi kerajaan untuk bekerjasama dengan UNHCR

Informasi Tambahan:

1. 2019 CRCM Status Report - Pg 47
2. 2020 US Trafficking in Persons Report, which was released in June 2020 (US Embassy in
Malaysia (2020)
3. In its 2018 Concluding Observations to Malaysia, the CEDAW Committee stated that it “it
remains deeply concerned that the State party remains a destination country for trafficking
of women and girls, including asylum-seeking and refugee women and girls, for purposes of
sexual exploitation, begging, forced labour, or forced marriage (UN Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (2018) Paragraph 25)
4. UN Human Rights Council. (2019, January 17). Visit to Malaysia - Report of the Special
Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child
pornography and other child sexual abuse. 7. A/HRC/40/51/Add/3. (UNHRC: New York)
5. Relevant bodies and stakeholders include immigration, judicial officers, prosecutors,
enforcement bodies, medical authorities including SCAN and OSCC staff, child protectors,
social workers, teachers, school staff, NGOs, religious authorities, refugee children, their
families and communities.